Water use by the energy sector is expected to double by 2035 (IEA, 2013); only the agricultural sector withdraws more water than the energy sector. In parallel the World Bank has argued that water shortages are now hindering global energy production (Rodriguez et al., 2013). Its 2014 initiative “Thirsty Energy” reflects this growing concern. This, in conjunction with existing stresses such as population, climate change and increased water scarcity, will place an enormous challenge on water resources. For example, it is expected that by 2035, 25% more oil and 61% more natural gas will be produced resulting in increases in associated water abstraction of 26% and 86% respectively. The World Economic Forum in 2014 identified water security as the top priority globally and thus the energy sector has a key role to play in ensuring sustainable water use. Treatment and transport of water and wastewater accounts for 7–8% of the world’s energy consumption, and over 4.6 billion m3 of water a year is consumed to generate this required energy (Hoffman, 2004; IEA, 2012). However, there are significant regional differences globally, within the “water sector”; with some regions utilising 20% of electricity generated. With these figures set to rise by 33% by 2020, possible methods of reducing energy consumption must be explored within the water sector (US EPA, 2006; IEA 2012). It is thus widely accepted that the integration of energy and water interactions and subsequent development of tools and models that enable better decision making are key research challenges (Hussey and Pittock, 2012).
|Journal||End use level water and energy interactions: A large non-residential building case study
2018; Water; Nair, S., Hashim, H., Hannon, L. and Clifford, E.
|Conference||Quantifying energy losses associated with faults in building water networks using a novel fault detection, diagnosis and optimization approach
2017; 12th Conference on sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems, 4-8 October 2017, Croatia; Nair, S., Mulligan, S., Hashim, H., Ryan, P., Keane, M., Clifford, E. and Hannon, L.